what does an octopus skull look like
Well, PZ, I thank you for increasing my appreciation of a much maligned and misunderstood species: the comparative biologist. The VL and the median superior frontal lobe (MSF) together form a structure that is functionally analogous to the vertebrate hippocampus. Speaking of academics and papers, I've just tried doing a search on ISI Web of Knowledge for articles written by you, PZ, and the latest one I've found is an abstract in Developmental Biology in 2001 in which you get a bunch of zebrafish all liquored up. Encounters are rare, so when we stumbled across footage of an argonaut school, we reached out to one such scientist: Dr Julian Finn of Museum Victoria. On the researchers' final visit, the eggs had hatched and the female was gone. Googling a bit one can find out that brain surgery and head impacts move around neurons in humans as much as in squids without "all kinds of damage". City living has its advantages and drawbacks, as we all know. Even something as specific as the neurobiology of learning and memory benefits from the evolutionary approach. The VL can actually be extirpated, and VLless octopuses, once they've got over the surgery, seem perfectly normal in swimming, feeding, and other ordinary behavioral functions. Do octupuses and such have large visual cortexes to go along with their (apparently) large eyes? It's handy having seven additional arms. At just 225 microns – about twice the width of a human hair – the shell is the thinnest secreted by any mollusc. Octopuses have about as many neurons as a dog - the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has around 500 million. Thanks to their nine brains, it seems that octopuses have the benefit of both localised and centralised control over their actions. Action potential generation occurs out there and doesn't involve the soma. The rest are in the doughnut-shaped brain, which is wrapped around the oesophagus and located in the octopus's head. By comparing different systems, we can identify the commonalities linked to function, and thereby come closer to finding generalizable rules and principles rather than the usual welter of details. I would think that would lead to all kinds of damage to those little neuronal connections? We're only just cracking the shell of argonaut biology, but one thing's for certain: encounters like the one captured by Nguyen offer a unique view into an unseen world, one that might not be around forever. Another incorporation of an octopus and a skull. Once a male has handed over his sperm, it's game over. Each species has a slightly different method, adds Jon. Deficits show up, though, when they are tested on learning and memory tasks: long term memory function is lost, and learning is greatly impaired. That’s especially true of our planet’s countless wild species: big and small, threatened and persecuted, complex and fascinating. All rights reserved. The professor, Johnny Palka, took pains at the beginning to explain to his class full of pre-meds and other such riff-raff that the course was going to study how the brain works, and that we were going to be looking at invertebrates almost exclusively—and he had to carefully reassure them that flies and squid actually did have brains, very good brains, and that he almost took it as a personal offense when his students implied that they didn't. Now we're wondering if you can help us.Â, Every year, more people are reading our articles to learn about the challenges facing the natural world. The lesson was that if you wanted to learn how your brain worked, often the most fruitful approach was an indirect one, using comparative studies to work out the commonalities and differences in organization, and try to correlate those with differences and similarities in function. I think it's a portrait of my mood right now. Our planet is a busy, crazy place. To reverse the damage we've done and protect the future, we need the knowledge that comes from scientific discovery. The findings emerging from recent electrophysiological studies in the octopus suggest that a convergent evolutionary process has led to the selection of similar networks and synaptic plasticity in evolutionarily very remote species that evolved to similar behaviors and modes of life. It is _vital_ that humanity have a worthy successor species, and what more better heir could their possibly be? It's not unique behaviour - some mammals and crows can do it too - but it is rather unusual.'. They also exhibit a microstructure of a sort we see over and over again in the vertebrate brain: a matrix of parallel fibers produced by many small cells, a set of input fibers (the MSF tract) crossing them orthogonally, and a small set of large output neurons upon which all this arrayed activity converges. The title of 'mum of the year' goes to Graneledone boreopacifica. Well, the blue blood is because the protein, haemocyanin, which carries oxygen around the octopus's body, contains copper rather than iron like we have in our own haemoglobin. When a mimic octopus was attacked by territorial damselfishes, for example, it disguised itself as one of their predators, a banded sea snake. You know two news outlets have produced confirming evidence of actual sexual assault by Donald Trump. Above you mention the massive parallelism and redundancy in the microstructure of the brain which is responsible for the plasticity in both mammalian and octopus brains. Details are different, but the key thing is that we see specialized subunits emerging—processing centers that carry out dedicated tasks. Even though benign tumors are usually slow growing, they can become large enough to cause symptoms. This colourful blob of wonder was discovered by the NOAA research vessel Nautilus off California's coast. For our growing team of writers and contributors, those are the stories that matter most: we dedicate our time to them all day and every day. Male argonauts measure in at just a centimetre in length, and lack the enlarged, web-like tentacles used to secrete calcium carbonate shells. The female will use his dismembered member to fertilise her eggs, To find out more about these enigmatic animals, Finn and his colleagues have called on the public to report argonaut sightings. It isn't only our heros that expand and grow; the Universe does that, too! The fact that I can't find any evidence whatsoever to support this assertion is _proof_ of a shadowy conspiracy, for who else could make such compelling evidence disappear? This strikes me as an area still rife for cross-fertilization. Squid that spawn in shelf waters…, Ever since I was a child I have had this instinctive urge for expansion and growth. Perhaps the biggest surprise is that the DNA of an octopus is essentially like a road map where the road signs keep hopping around. You can also shop using Amazon Smile and though you pay nothing more we get a tiny something. Life's not easy for octopus mums either. You must be over the age of 13. Image: Finn, Museum Victoria, The detached, free-swimming hectocotylus of the chambered nautilus, The world’s weirdest octopus is a nautilus lookalike – and we’ve never seen so many, in unison can discourage predators by giving prey the appearance of a single, much larger creature, and makes it difficult to pick one off from the bunch.

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